New insights into the origin and evolution of the Iranian Safir rocket

Posted: November 12, 2013 in Uncategorized…/Nodong_Safir/
Some important notes from the available imagery for a more accurate interpretation of the Safir launcher:

  • The only way to make statements about the used fuel combinations and their mixing ratios are more or less good photos. This affects of all rockets, beginning with Shahab-3 and ending with Safir-1B IRILV. The most important criterion was to find the location of an intertank section.
  • On a detailed photo of the Safir-0 rocket (mockup) is visible – about in the middle of the first stage – a hatch, which indicating the position of the intertank section.
  • The slightly longer tank for the oxidizer is located in the top part of the rocket, therefore the tank for the fuel in the lower part (in contrast to Shahab-3 andGhadr-H).
  • Due to the unexpected length of the fuel tank is kerosene not into consideration, it should be UDMH.
  • On a rare photo of the refueled Safir-Omid a temporary insulation of the fuel tank is visible. For Kerosene is such insulation not required.
  • The Safir-0 has probably a small additional tank, which is located beneath the fuel tank. It is detect the typical red marked inlet for oxidizer.
  • This small extra tank was removed from the Safir-1, Safir-1A and Safir-1B in favor the extension the fuel tank and thus the change of the volume mixing ratio of 1.50 after 1.10.
  • The different length of the cable ducts between Safir-0 and Safir-1/1A/1B documented these observations.
  • It is believed that the small additional tank was filled with oxidizer of better quality than AK-27 (N2O4 ?).
  • Obviously this oxidizer (N2O4 ?) now used for the entire filling of oxidizer tank (Safir-1A/1B).
  • Now the permanent brown plume is not present at the nozzle. This is also true for the Kavoshgar-1 test rocket.
  • Appropriate announcements about a new “high energy fuel” are known from Iranian source. The thrust of the engine is increased from 314 to 348 kN (vac).
  • The Safir-1/1A/1B have minor fins to reduce the launch weight of the rocket, for the Safir-1B even the paint is omitted.
  • These findings (UDMH/AK-27 as propellant combination) can we transferred to the Nodong missile and their variants, because they use the same engines.
  • On photos of maneuvers is to see that the Shahab-3 missile to be refueled on-site, in contrast to the Shahab-2 (Scud) missiles.
  • The intertank sections of Shahab-3 and Ghadr-H are at the same height above the ground. The oxidizer tanks therefore have the same length. The fuel tanks above are of different lengths. The fuel tank of the Ghadr-H is about 2.0 m longer.
  • Therefore the volume mixture ratios of Shahab-3 and Ghadr-H with 1.90 and 1.15 are significantly different.
  • Since both missiles use the same Nodong engine, they likely to take the same fuel combination, probably UDMH/AK-27. The volume ratio of 1.90 for the Shahab-3 however speaks for the combination TM-185/AK-27.
  • The pipe connections for fuel and oxidizer, at the lower end of the tank, are differently positioned between and Safir-1 and Kavoshgar/Ghadr-H. See below.

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